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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
September-December 2019
Volume 40 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 127-169

Online since Tuesday, November 19, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Predictors and prevalence of bipolar disorders in patients with a major depressive disorder p. 127
Reda M Ismail, Hala T Mohamed, Rania A Hamed, Sherif A Helal
DOI:10.4103/ejpsy.ejpsy_22_19  
Introduction Onset of bipolar disorder (BD) involves a major depressive episode (MDE) in approximately half of type-I (BD-I) patients and three-quarters of those diagnosed with type-II (BD-II). Aim To detect the soft signs and the predictors of BD in patients with a MDE. Participants and methods A sample of 500 patients was solicited fulfilling the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for a current MDE. Patients were given the HCL-32-R2 questionnaire to assess the presence of manic/hypomanic symptoms; those scoring less than 14 were considered bipolar. We also examined whether demographics, psychiatric history, clinical characteristics, and the incidence of comorbid conditions differed significantly between patients with BD and unipolar disorder. Results A number of factors were highly predictive of bipolarity, including age at illness onset, family history of bipolarity, seasonality, mixed state, manic switch, mood irritability, and mood reactivity. Of the comorbidities examined, thyroid disorders, cardiovascular disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, presence of psychotic features, and borderline personality disorder occurred at a higher rate in patients with BDs than in those with unipolar disorders. Conclusion A number of factors in the patient’s psychiatric history as well as clinical aspects of the episode itself may signal an increased likelihood of bipolarity.
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Schizophrenia symptom dimensions in correlation to patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics p. 137
Samah Rabei, Haitham Osama ElBoraie, Nesrin Elsaadouni, Mohamed Ezzat Elhadidy
DOI:10.4103/ejpsy.ejpsy_23_19  
Background Schizophrenia symptom dimensions could vary with clinical and demographic variables. Materials and methods A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia were diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and statistical manual criteria of the American Psychiatric association. Positive and negative symptom scale was used to assess schizophrenia symptoms. The search for possible correlations between dimensions and demographic and clinical variables was done by Pearson correlation coefficient. Results and conclusion Symptom dimensions showed a correlation with age, onset, duration, hospitalization, compliance to medication, duration without treatment, and family history of schizophrenia.
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Intercorrelation of symptom dimensions in patients with schizophrenia p. 141
Nesrin Elsaadouni, Haitham Elboraie, Samah Rabei, Ahmed Elboraie
DOI:10.4103/ejpsy.ejpsy_24_19  
Background The heterogeneity of schizophrenia symptoms is well documented. The positive and negative distinction is limited to cover the entire spectrum of schizophrenia phenomenology. Aim The aim of the study is to find out the major symptom dimensions of phenomenology in a sample of schizophrenic patients. Materials and methods We recruited 100 schizophrenic patients. Diagnosis was based on diagnostic and statistical manual criteria. Positive and negative symptoms scale was used to assess schizophrenia symptoms. Patients’ scores were subjected to factor analysis with varimax rotation. Internal consistency was determined by the use of Cronbach’s α. Results Five dimensions (factors) were produced: negative, excitement, positive, depressive, and cognitive dimensions. Internal consistency was quite satisfactory.
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Psychosocial aspects and personality dimensions among a sample of patients with irritable bowel syndrome p. 147
Hala M Abd Elaziz, Reda M Ismail, Hala T Mohammed, Shimaa Y Abd Elaziz
DOI:10.4103/ejpsy.ejpsy_27_19  
Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, a burden to society through total direct costs, reduced social functioning, and quality of life impairment. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the associated psychosocial risk factors and personality traits in a sample of IBS patients. Participants and methods A total of 100 patients of IBS were recruited from the Gastroenterology and Internal Medicine Outpatient Clinics Departments at Al Zahraa University Hospital during the period from January 2018 to August 2018 and 100 apparently healthy participants as the control group (aged 18–45 years) were subjected to clinical psychiatric assessment, Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire, Stressor life events questionnaire, and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I. Results The total number of cases was 100 [25 (25%) men and 75 (75%) women] with a mean age of 34.18±6.4 years; there was statistical significance regarding age, sex, marital status, and high significance in family history of IBS, education, employment; 51% had long duration of illness of more than 5 years. High neuroticism score was detected in 63% of the patients versus (VS) 20% of the control group and 52% of the patients had low extroversion VS 16% in the control group. There was high statistical significance in family, economic, social, emotional, health, and personal stressors. Moreover, 66% of the patients had psychiatric comorbidity, high statistical significance with generalized anxiety disorder and hypochondriasis, and statistical significance with somatization, dysthymic disorder, mixed anxiety depression, and panic disorder. Conclusion In this study, we found that IBS was associated with significant psychological distress and psychiatric comorbidities as psychosocial factors, so good assessment and early recognition will permit early intervention to improve outcome of the IBS and quality of life.
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Effect of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity on disability and quality of life of bipolar patients p. 155
Amira A Fouad, Heba A Fouad, Shimaa I Amin
DOI:10.4103/ejpsy.ejpsy_30_19  
Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disease, usually first diagnosed during childhood or adolescence. A significant portion (∼50–65%) of ADHD symptoms persist into adulthood. Adult ADHD and bipolar disorder (BD) are common comorbid psychiatric conditions. Comorbidity between BD and adult ADHD has been reported in both ADHD and BD cases. Aim To determine the effect of comorbid adult ADHD on disability and quality of life of patients with bipolar disorder. Patients and methods This is a cross-sectional study that was done at the Psychiatric Department in the Zagazig University Hospitals, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, during the period from May to November, 2017. One hundred and two euthymic patients with Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed. − text revision diagnosis of BD I were selected by simple random probability sampling from the patients with bipolar disorder who came for follow-up and to receive their medications from psychiatric outpatient clinic. Results The mean age of the participants ranged from 18 to 40 years, and 51% were female. Patients with bipolar disorder with adult ADHD had more disability in work, social life, and family life than patients with pure bipolar disorder. Moreover, patients with bipolar disorder without adult ADHD had significant better quality of life in all domains as reflected by higher scores in WHO quality-of-life scale than patients with adult ADHD. Conclusion Adult ADHD is a frequent comorbid disorder in patients with BD. Adult ADHD comorbidity negatively affects functioning and quality of life of patients with BD.
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Psychiatric aspects of children who witness domestic violence p. 162
Zeinab Gomma, El Sayed Saleh, Yomna Rizk, Dalia Asfour
DOI:10.4103/ejpsy.ejpsy_31_19  
Background The presence of domestic violence witnessed by children leads to development of different mental disorders of childhood. Objectives This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children who witness domestic violence. Patients and methods A community-based case–control study was designed to assess the prevalence of psychiatric disorder in children who witness domestic violence of both sexes aged 6–18 years old with different socioeconomic classes. Tools of measurement used in the current study were Hurt, Insulted, Threatened with Harm and Screamed tool; socioeconomic scale by El-Gilany; symptoms check list (SCL-90); and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses for child’s interview. Results The most common disorders among children witness domestic violence is conduct disorder (15%), major depressive disorder (10%), and attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (8.3%). Children who are not affected among studied families (cases) represented 33.3%. There was a statistically significant difference among cases that witness domestic violence and controls who did not witness it regarding additional signs, loss of appetite, insomniac problems, death ideas, aggressive symptom, and reactive sensitivity symptoms reported as well as global stress indices measured by SCL-90. The most common reason for domestic violence was the financial reasons. Fathers are more responsible for most of the violence incidents. Conclusions Ignoring of suffering and the long duration spent with domestic violent atmosphere without seeking help increase the risk for psychiatric disorder in those children. So legal empowerment and aid projects are essential in raising awareness to influence cultural change and put an end to domestic violence.
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