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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 42  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 158-165

Impact of familial and perinatal risk factors in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders: an Egyptian sample


1 Department of Medical Studies for Children, Faculty of Postgraduate Childhood Studies, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
2 Psychological Studies for Children, Faculty of Postgraduate Childhood Studies, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
PhD Dina Y ElAlfy
Department of Medical Studies for Children, Faculty of Postgraduate Childhood Studies, Ain Shams University, Cairo, 11771
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ejpsy.ejpsy_19_21

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Introduction Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) are reported in children who have a higher risk of perinatal complications, reaching up to 35–50% of children born with low birth weight, or preterm, and other natal and neonatal complications. Objective To study the patterns and extent of familial and perinatal risk factors in children with ADHD. Patients and methods The sample was 456 ADHD cases out of 3152 children who were attending a Neurodevelopmental Child Psychiatry Clinic in Cairo, Egypt, from April 2010 to October 2018. The control group was 274 apparently normal children attending the Neurodevelopmental Child Psychiatry Clinic for parental consultations and counseling. Results The most prominent significant risk factors were the existence of attacks of skin allergy and cerclage prenatally, while asphyxia and neonatal ICU admission were significant risk factors postnatally. There was a significant correlation between the cerclage and in-vitro fertilization with no significant correlation with previous abortion. There is a significant correlation with threatened abortion, using drug treatment for threatened abortion, infection, and inflammation during pregnancy, also the placenta was not nutritive, kidney, lung, cardiac problems postnatally, and cesarean section were significantly correlated with cerclage as a risk factor. Conclusions There was a complex interaction of familial and other antenatal risk factors of ADHD, the role of an inadequate maternal and child healthcare delivery system was also evident.


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