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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-April 2021
Volume 42 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-57

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

The association of anxiety and depressive disorders with substance use disorders: frequency and relationship with substance use severity p. 1
Maha A Hassan, Mohamed A Abdelhameed, Salwa M.R Taha, Mohamed H Abdelhafeez
DOI:10.4103/ejpsy.ejpsy_8_20  
Background Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a common and potentially serious form of mental illness. Common associated mental illnesses include depressive and anxiety disorders. Objectives To examine the frequency of comorbidity and the degree of severity of depressive and anxiety disorders with SUDs in a sample of upper Egyptian patients. Patients and methods A total of 103 patients with SUDs were recruited. There were 95 males and eight females, with an age of 27.5±6.2, and two-thirds (67%) of them came from urban areas. They were subjected to complete substance use history, urine analysis screen for substances of abuse, Hamilton rating scales for anxiety and depression, and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Results Overall, 41 (39.8%) patients began using substances before the age of 18 years, and 79 (76.7%) patients used more than one substance. Moreover, 74 (71.9%) patients had moderate or severe anxiety, whereas 78 (75.7%) patients had moderate or severe depression. Anxiety scores were positively and significantly correlated with three of the seven domains of ASI in addition to the duration of substance use, whereas depression scores were positively and significantly correlated with six of the ASI domains. Patients using polysubstances scored significantly higher than those using a single substance on anxiety and depressive scores. Conclusions Anxiety and depressive disorders are frequently diagnosed in patients with SUDs. Increased severity of both types of disorders is associated with increased parameters of substance use severity. Using more than one substance increases the likelihood of having more severe anxiety and depressive illness.
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Prevalence of anxiety and depression in Abu Dhabi residents in the year 2019 (a pilot study) p. 9
Fatma Mubarak, Nisirn Esaadouni
DOI:10.4103/ejpsy.ejpsy_30_20  
Background and aim In the past, inattentively mental health disorders were not addressed properly owing to several factors. Despite that, depression and anxiety are commonly seen in the general practice, and there are no statistical data that reflect the effect of this problem. This is a pilot study that aims to reveal the percentage of depression and anxiety among the general population of Abu Dhabi. Patients and methods This is a cross-sectional pilot study with a sample size of 176 individuals; the P value was set to be 0.05, and confidence interval is 95%. The data tools are self-administered questionnaires focusing on Patient Health Questionnaire 2 and 9 and General Anxiety Disorder 7 scale distributed to visitors attending Mediclinic Hospitals. Data analysis was done by using Statistical Package for Social Science. Results The study showed that 53.98% of Abu Dhabi residents screened were negative for depression, whereas 46.02% were positive. Moreover, 62.50% of Abu Dhabi residents screened were found to have mild anxiety, 31.25% as moderate anxiety, and 6.25% had severe anxiety. Conclusion There are emerging cases of depression and anxiety among Abu Dhabi residents, and further wide screening programs are required to be implemented to reduce the mental health-related sicknesses and empower the human nature with positive thinking attitude and well-being.
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Psychiatric disorders and psychosocial problems among immigrant students p. 16
Youmna Sabri, Maha Borham
DOI:10.4103/ejpsy.ejpsy_31_18  
Background Migration is associated with stress that may result in adverse physical and psychological health problems. It involves three phases. Each stage has its own risks, challenges, and difficulties. Mansoura University has a large number of foreign students from different nationalities who come to study in various scientific fields. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the presence of a group of various psychiatric disorders and psychosocial problems among a sample of immigrant students in Mansoura University and to compare them with a control group of Egyptian students. Moreover, this study aimed to identify factors related to migration (premigration, migration and postmigration stages) that may affect mental health of immigrant students. Participants and methods In this study, data were collected from 135 college students who completed the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale − applicable up to 19 years old − which evaluates the presence and severity of symptoms of psychological disorders and distress: the English version for immigrant students and the Arabic version for the Egyptian students. Moreover, an additional paper was added to the sheet introduced to the immigrant students to obtain data about their migration process. Results In our study, nonrefugee immigrants (education is the purpose of migration) had a lower risk of having psychiatric disorders or psychosocial problems than the compared group (the Egyptian students). Conclusion Nonrefugee immigrants are likely to differ from other immigrants on the basis of educational and economic status, linguistic capacity, migration experiences, being in groups and exposure to adversity and trauma through premigration, migration, and postmigration stages, which undoubtedly play a protective role for them against psychiatric and psychosocial problems.
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Relation between executive function and academic achievement among children diagnosed with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder p. 23
Aya M Hamza, Soha A El Latif Ghobashy, Heba E Abou El Wafa
DOI:10.4103/ejpsy.ejpsy_36_20  
Background In spite of decades of progress in understanding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a disorder of executive functions (EFs), there have been no significant number of studies exploring this executive dysfunction’s effects on a child’s daily life, more specifically the academic achievement domain, and it was long hypothesized that EFs affect child school performance and learning ability. Therefore, the identification of early, modifiable predictors of achievement can help guide efforts to improve the long-term success of many children and adolescents and to develop individualized educational strategies aimed at assisting children who struggle academically. Patients and methods This study examined different EF domains in a sample (N=100) of drug-naïve children aged 6–13 and having ADHD using the Barkley Deficits In Executive Functioning Scale-Children and Adolescents (BDEFS-CA). Moreover, all children were subjected to structured psychiatric interview as well as intelligence quotient testing and Conners’ parent rating scale. Relations between complex EF and academic achievement were examined. Results Academic performance was highly correlated with intelligence quotient, whereas there is no significant difference between different subtypes of ADHD and EFs. The correlation between Conners’ scale score signifying ADHD symptoms severity and academic achievement was insignificant. Finally, self-motivation EFs showed the highest significant correlation, suggesting a domain-general relation between complex EF and academic achievement. Conclusion Self-motivation is the main EF correlated with academic achievement in children with ADHD, and developing individualized educational programs for those children will improve scholastic achievement.
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Sleep and emotional disturbances among the health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt p. 29
Heba M Elweshahi, Jaidaa F Mekky, Heba E.A Elwafa, Mona H Ashry
DOI:10.4103/ejpsy.ejpsy_42_20  
Background The COVID-19 pandemic is a major health crisis facing the health system. Such widespread pandemics are associated with adverse mental health consequences, especially on the medical team. Aims This study aims to screen for emotional disturbances, sleep change, and stigma among Egyptian health care workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted that included 621 HCWs in lower Egypt using an online questionnaire that included data about demographic characteristics, medical history, and lifestyle practices of participants. Hamilton anxiety and depression rating scales and insomnia severity index were used. The prevalence of anxiety among studied HCWs was 62%, and more than a half (57.6%) had a form of sleeping disorder. Regarding depression, 41.1% were mildly depressed, 7.6% moderately depressed, and only five of them were severely depressed. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that females, history of psychiatric illness, sense of stigma, affection of close relative or friend, and lack of exercise practicing were significantly associated with higher prevalence of anxiety and depression. Conclusion Supporting mental health of HCWs should be considered in updating the Egyptian response plan to COVID-19 epidemic and on planning response of future events.
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Internet abuse in children and adolescents during COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt p. 36
Heba Essam Abou El Wafa, Mona Hamdy Ashry, Jaidaa Farouk Mekky, Heba Mahmoud Elweshahi
DOI:10.4103/ejpsy.ejpsy_43_20  
Intro duction Internet addiction among children and adolescents is a serious issue they face and can present with an array of negative consequences. The lockdown owing to COVID-19 pandemic has increased the possibility of this type of addiction. Aim To investigate the prevalence of internet abuse among Egyptian children and adolescents during COVID-19 pandemic and to explore factors associated with internet abuse. Patients and methods An online cross-sectional survey was carried out among school children and adolescents (aged 6–18) at Alexandria, Egypt, using the online SurveyMonkey platform. The survey questionnaire included data about demographic characteristics, lifestyle practices, and internet use during and before the pandemic in addition to the translated Young’s Internet Addiction Test. Results The questionnaire was completed by 580 children and adolescents. During the period of COVID-19 pandemic and according to Young’s Internet Addiction Test, only 14.66% of participants were considered as average internet users, the majority (74.65%) were problematic users, and 10.69% were classified as internet addicts. Lack of regular exercises during the period of pandemic was significantly higher among internet addicts as compared with average and problematic users (P=0.018). Lack of good parent–child relationship and lack of supervision from the side of the parents on their children and adolescents were significantly associated with higher probability of internet addiction or being a problematic user (P=0.001 and 0.002, respectively). Older children and adolescents were at a higher risk for internet addiction. Conclusion Special attention should be given to the pattern of internet use among children and adolescents. Parents should be encouraged to control internet use among children and adolescents through encouraging physical activity, lifestyle modification, offering alternatives, intermittent supervision, strengthening the relation with them, and providing support.
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Burnout among Egyptian health care workers and its associations p. 43
Mohamed Elsheikh, Abdelrahman E Naga
DOI:10.4103/ejpsy.ejpsy_46_20  
Background Burnout is considered to be an important health problem that is faced by HCWs. Aims To measure burnout prevalence and to analyze its association with sociodemographic and occupational features among different sectors of Egyptian health care workers (HCWs). Patients and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted via some internet social media platforms to groups of HCWs in April 2020. The Maslach Burnout Inventory and sociodemographic and occupational questionnaires were applied. The Maslach Burnout Inventory is divided into three subscales: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA). High EE and DP scores and low PA scores indicate burnout in these HCWs. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and χ2 test. Results A total of 143 HCWs participated in this survey. Most of them were under the age of 40 years. Based on our analysis, 93 (65%) respondents had a high EE score, 53 (37.1%) had a high DP score, and 45 (31.5%) had a low PA score. Four variables including age, sex, marital status, and duration of employment had a significant association with high EE, whereas five variables were associated with low PA score, such as age, sex, kind of health care work, duration of employment, and country of working. Conclusion This study sheds light on the heterogeneous entity of burnout and some of its associated factors. Age and place of work are important factors in presence or absence of burnout, whereas sex and profession did not appear to play a big role in determining burnout.
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Smartphone addiction among medical students in mansoura university p. 50
Shiamaa Eldesokey, Zeinab Gomaa, Yomna Sabri, Abdel-Hady El-Gilany, Mohamed Elwasify
DOI:10.4103/ejpsy.ejpsy_47_20  
Background In the past few years, there has been a growing attention to smartphone addictions. Various studies conducted within the past decade have analyzed the harmful effects of smartphone overuse on university students including medical students. Objective This cross-sectional study on 780 students estimated the prevalence of smartphone addiction and its associated factors in medical students of Mansoura University, Egypt. Patients and methods A self-administered questionnaire was completed to gather data about Problematic Use of Mobile Phones scale, sociodemographic characteristics, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21, Insomnia Severity Index, and feeling of loneliness (UCLA) questionnaire. Results The overall prevalence of smartphone addiction was 53.6%. The significant independent predictors of smartphone addiction are studying less than or equal to 4 h [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.6], mild/moderate and severe/extreme severe depression (AOR=2.5 and 3.4, respectively), and severe/extreme severe stress (AOR=2.1). Conclusion Smartphone addiction is common among medical students and closely related to psychological problems.
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ERRATUM Top

Erratum: Prevalence of obsessive compulsive spectrum disorder in patients seeking dermatological consultation p. 57

DOI:10.4103/ejpsy.ejpsy_9_21  
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