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   Table of Contents - Current issue
September-December 2020
Volume 41 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 125-189

Online since Monday, October 5, 2020

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Quality of life of epileptic children in Minia Governorate: a cross-sectional study p. 125
Mostafa M Abdel Naem, Mohamed H Abdel Hafeez, Maha A Hassan
Background Quality of life of childhood epilepsy (QOLCE) is the main outcome that is increasingly being recognized as an essential element in the assessment of the epilepsy effects on life function and also treatment of epilepsy. This study aimed to assess the QOL among the epileptic children. Patients and Methods A cross sectional study design was carried out on 100 children. The study has been held in the Neurology and Psychiatry outpatient clinic of Minia university hospital; In addition to Minia Psychiatry hospital, the official psychiatry hospital in Minia governorate. The total sample included 100 children. Fifty epileptic children aged between 4–18 yrs and 50 apparently healthy children with no chronic illness, of matched age, sex, and social class were included as the control group. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding sociodemographics, except for birth order and number of sibling, as well as for positive family history of epilepsy. Regarding the electroencephalography changes, there was a significant difference between the two groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding the low QOLCE score. Polytherapy had low score on QOLCE, especially in emotional, social, physical, and total score. Conclusions Childhood epilepsy affects the QOL of the epileptic children, especially cognitive, social, emotional, and physical functions. Polytherapy was associated with more impairment of QOL. On the contrary, epileptic patients who were compliant to treatment had good QOL.
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The effect of tramadol abuse on the quality of sexual life p. 134
Mostafa M Abdel Naem, Mohammed T Sidik, Maha A Hassan, Saad A Abd El-Maseeh, Salwa M.R Taha
Objectives Tramadol abuse has spread markedly among the Egyptian people with many myths about its value in improving physical and sexual function. This study aims to assess the different aspects of sexual function in patients with long-term tramadol abuse. Patients and methods The participants of the study were recruited from the Hotline Clinic of Minia Psychiatric Hospital, Upper Egypt during a 6-month period. After taking their consent, 68 individuals with a history and a positive urine analysis test of tramadol abuse were included. They were assessed clinically and by addiction severity index, sexuality scale, and sexual quality of life questionnaire-male version. They were compared with a control group of 43 individuals with no history of drug abuse and negative urine analysis test. Results All the aspects of quality of sexual life were significantly better in the control group than the tramadol abuse group. There was a significant correlation between the number of symptoms and the sexual esteem; and between psychiatric status and sexual esteem and sexual depression; and between family and social problems and sexual esteem and sexual depression. Conclusion Patients with tramadol abuse are more likely to have poor quality of sexual life in comparison to healthy controls.
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Beliefs and attitude toward mental illness among a sample of university students in Egypt p. 141
Asmaa M Elaidy, Shaimaa M Arafa
Background People’s attitude and beliefs about mental illness set the scene for how they help, interact with, and provide opportunities for a person with mental illness. Objective This study aimed to assess the beliefs and attitudes toward mental illness and psychiatric patients in the scientific and theoretical faculties among a sample of undergraduate students in Al-Azhar University, Egypt and to determine if there are any differences regarding the type of faculty or academic degree. Participants and methods A descriptive design was adopted for this study. Data collection took place from January to May 2019 via the beliefs scale for mental illness. A total of 1200 undergraduates were recruited from different faculties: 592 students from scientific faculties such as ‘medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, science, and commerce’; and 608 from theoretical faculties such as ‘Islamic, Arabic, and Humanistics.’ Results Undergraduate students in Al-Azhar University for Girls showed positive attitudes toward mental illness regardless of their academic degrees, the type of faculty, or their residence. However, the scientific faculties showed a more positive attitude than theoretical faculties, also a direct positive relation was found regarding the academic degree. Negative attitude was found in students with a psychiatric history of mental illness and in those with a positive family history of mental illness. Conclusion Scientific faculties and advanced academic degree hold more positive beliefs and attitude toward mentally ill patients. There is possibility for additional research including studying the effects of educational interventions.
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Correlating cognitive and executive functions to BMI p. 147
Nermin M Shaker, Mohamed H EAbd El Moneam, Mostafa A El Shahhat, Samah H Rabei
Objective Cognitive and executive dysfunction is related to BMI. The present study seeks to correlate cognitive functions to BMI. Participants and methods An observational study included 60 patients who underwent laboratory and clinical evaluation including BMI and a series of psychometric tests, a standardized mini-mental state examination, the Wechsler adult intelligence scale, and the Wisconsin card sorting test. Results BMI has stronger significant inverse correlation to performance intelligence quotient than the significant inverse correlation to verbal and total intelligence quotient. Also, BMI has significant inverse correlation to executive functions. Discussion Our results indicate that higher BMI is correlated to lower cognitive and executive functions. Patients with obesity had low scores on general intelligence and executive functions, particularly abstraction ability and the ability to shift cognitive strategies in response to a changing environment. Future research should incorporate brain imaging techniques to further elucidate the effects of obesity on cognition.
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Burnout among nursing staff in Benha University Hospital p. 153
Victor S Mikhael, Hussien E Elsheikh, Shewikar T El-Bakry, Shorouk F Abd-Elmaksoud
Objective Burnout is a state of chronic and excessive stress related to one’s job, which comprises three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment. It is pervasive among helping professions such as nursing. The main aim of this study was to identify the sources of stress among nurses at Benha University Hospital. Patients and methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 100 nurses from Benha University Hospital. Inclusion criteria were nurses whose age ranged from 18 to 40 years old, who were still working for at least 1 year continuously, and had started working for at least 1 year. Assessment of stress was done using the Arabic translation of the Maslach burnout inventory and life stress questionnaire. Results The prevalence of burnout syndrome was seen among 64% of nurses. There was a statistically significant difference regarding depersonalization score but not regarding emotional exhaustion or lack of personal accomplishment. The highest rates of burnout were reported among the group of ICU, coronary care unit, and emergency department nurses. Female nurses reported higher levels of burnout (71.4%) compared with male nurses (25%).The most commonly mentioned life stressors among the studied nurses were difficult work conditions (84%), tension at work (80%), inadequate health insurance (60%), change in sleeping habits (54%), and health problem of a family member (54%). Conclusion Burnout is prevalent among nurses in Benha University Hospital, and it contributes to more absences and less job satisfaction. Difficult work conditions and tension at work are the most common sources of stress among nurses followed by inadequate health insurance, health problem of a family member, and inadequate finance.
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Obsessive–compulsive symptoms and quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris p. 162
Adel A Ibrahim, Fatma M El-Esawy, Sherine H AbdEl-Rahman, Shorouk F Abd-Elmaksoud
Objective or Background Acne is the most common problem that presents to dermatologists. Because it causes visible disfiguring of the face, it produces a great deal of embarrassment, frustration, anger, and depression in patients. Acne can produce anxiety, depression, and other psychiatric symptoms that affect patients’ lives. Obsessive–compulsive disorder is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders expected to be comorbid with acne vulgaris. The aim of the study was to detect obsessive–compulsive symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in patients with acne vulgaris and to compare the results with the results of healthy controls. Patients and methods In a cross-sectional design study, 150 patients diagnosed with acne vulgaris and 50 apparently healthy participants were subjected to Global Acne Grading System, Maudsley Obsessive–Compulsive Questionnaire, Short Form-36, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results Patients with acne vulgaris had higher Maudsley Obsessive–Compulsive Questionnaire scores for checking and slowness than the healthy controls. In terms of QOL, they showed significantly lower scores for physical functioning, physical role difficulty, general health perception, vitality, and emotional role difficulty than the controls. Both groups were similar in terms of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale subscores and total score. Conclusion Obsessive–compulsive symptoms are more severe in patients with acne vulgaris than in healthy participants and are negatively correlated with QOL. The presence of these and other comorbid psychiatric disorders should be considered in the treatment of patients with acne to provide better health care, referral, and management.
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Auditory brainstem responses in children with autistic spectrum disorder p. 171
Heba E.A El Wafa, Soha A.E.L Ghobashy, Hesham Kozou, Amira K Zakaria
Background The assessment and management of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is complex and therefore requires continuous efforts for developing evidence-based guidelines for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of ASD. This research aims to study auditory brainstem response (ABR) in autistic children as a potential biomarker that could detect autism early during infancy as well as to study its relation to repetitive behavior. Patients and methods It included 60 children diagnosed with ASD according to DSM-5 among those attending the Child and Adolescent Outpatient Clinic at Elhadara University Hospital and Mamoura Psychiatric Hospital. Those with hearing or visual impairment, epileptic syndromes, psychotic illness, or other affective disorder were excluded from the study. In all, 53 (88.3%) boys and seven (11.7%) girls participated in this study. Their mean±SD age was 6.41±1.99 years. Childhood Autism Rating Scale, 2nd ed., Repetitive Behavior Scale–Revised, and audiological studies were performed with emphasis on ABR by a consultant of audiology. Results Statistical analysis was done on the results and the study showed that absolute latency of waves III and V on the right ear and those of waves I and III on the left ear and interpeak latencies I–III and I–V of both the right and left ears were significantly away from norms in the ASD group and latency of wave I from the left side shows a significant positive correlation with total Repetitive Behavior Scale–Revised score. This denotes that a longer duration of wave I corresponds to severity of repetitive and restricted behaviors. Conclusion During initial assessment of a suspected ASD case, click ABR at an intensity of 80 dB (not the usual one at an intensity of 30 dB for screening of hearing impairment) to be requested and examination of the full parameters for assessment of auditory processing and not only for excluding a hearing problem.
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Quality of life among caregivers of patients with bipolar disorder p. 177
Afaf Mohamed, Nesreen Mohsen, Bishoy Morkos, Rehab Naguib
Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is often associated with great caregiver burden. However, fewer studies exist on BD caregivers. Caregiver burden is associated with increased mental health service utilization, health problems, and costs. This study aimed to assess the quality of life (QoL) of BD caregivers and the factors affecting it. Patients and methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 100 bipolar patients with their caregivers at the outpatient clinics of The Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University Hospitals, and Abbassia Hospital for Mental Health. Results Regarding the caregivers, age is considered a determining factor of their QoL, while there was insignificant difference on the caregivers’ QoL regarding their sex. The caregiver who was employed and those who was not sharing the same house with the patient scored higher on QoL score. Regarding BD patients, the patient’s sex had a direct correlation on the QoL of the caregiver, while the patient’s age, mood state, severity of depression, and illness duration showed insignificant correlation on the caregivers’ QoL. Conclusion The age of the caregiver is a determining factor of the QoL. Also caregiver’s QoL was not related to their sex or the patients’ mood.
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Symptomatic remission in first-episode psychosis and its predictors: a single-center study in Egypt p. 183
Hassan M Sonbol, Ahmed A Eissa, Wafaa A.-H El-Bahaey, Abdel-H.E.-G. Abdel-Fattah, Mostafa A.-M Amr
Aim The aim of the current study was to investigate the rates and predictors of symptomatic remission in patients presenting with first-episode psychosis 1 year after treatment initiation. Patients and methods A total of 102 participants aged 19–42 years who were consecutively enrolled into this study from October 2014 to November 2016 and who fulfilled the study inclusion criteria and completed 1-year of follow-up. Baseline and follow-up variables were collected via direct interview of the patients and their caregivers. In order to assess symptomatic remission, the standardized remission criteria for schizophrenia by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group were used, based on positive and negative syndrome scale. Results By the end of 1-year follow-up, 36.3% (n=37) of participants met the criteria for symptomatic remission. Logistic regression analysis showed that good premorbid functioning was found to be the only independent predictor of symptomatic remission. Conclusion In a cohort of Egyptian young people presenting with first-episode psychosis, the rate of symptomatic remission was low (36.3%) in comparison with previous cohorts conducted in the developing countries.
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Erratum: Sleep disorder among shift work nurses and its impact on their quality of life at al Ahrar Governmental Hospital, Zagazig City, Egypt p. 189

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