• Users Online: 104
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home Current issue Archives Ahead of print Search Subscribe Instructions Submit article About us Editorial board Contacts Login
Export selected to
Reference Manager
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
   Table of Contents - Current issue
September-December 2022
Volume 43 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 125-189

Online since Friday, December 16, 2022

Accessed 6,689 times.
View as eBookView issue as eBook
Access StatisticsIssue statistics
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to  Add to my list

Child behavior and psychological comorbidities in relation to different forms of child abuse among working children p. 125
Amani S Ahmed, Rania A Hamed, Shaimaa Y Abd Elaziz, Naglaa F Agba
Background Childhood labor exposes children to the risk of violence and abuse that may adversely affect their psychological well-being. Aim To explore psychological comorbidities and their relation to different forms of abuse among labored children and identify risk factors for exposure to abuse in working children. Patients and methods This cross-sectional study included 158 male working children aged 12–17 years. Sociodemographic data, education level, and type of work were collected. The type of abuse was categorized into physical, emotional, and sexual abuse using the International Child Abuse Screening Tool (children’s version institution questionnaire). Social competence and behavioral problem assessment was done using the Child Behavior Checklist (the youth self-report). Regression analysis to determine predictors of abuse among working children was done. Results About 59.5% of included children were exposed to at least one type of child abuse last year, 75% reported exposure during work time. The commonest form was psychological, followed by physical abuse, and last, sexual abuse. Social competence was impaired in abused children, regardless of the type of abuse. Behavioral problems were significantly higher in children exposed to physical and sexual abuse. Younger age (odds ratio 4.09; 95% confidence interval 1.03:16.18) and working in small industrial shops (odds ratio 3.28; 95% confidence interval 1.40:7.71) were risk factors for abuse exposure in working children. Conclusion Working children at higher risk for child abuse adversely affect their social competence and increase their behavioral problems.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Serum vitamin-D level and major depressive disorder in Upper Egypt p. 134
Taher A Sayed, Tarek Desoky, Osama A.A Mahmoud, Saber Hadad
Background There is an increasing evidence of an association between low vitamin-D levels and depression. Consequently, the present study aimed to investigate the serum levels of vitamin D in cases with major depressive disorder in Sohag Governorate in Upper Egypt. Also, we studied the correlation between serum vitamin-D level and different demographic and clinical variables in these patients. This study included 60 patients who attended our outpatient psychiatric clinic at Sohag University Hospital, who were diagnosed as major depressive disorder (group I) and a similar number (60) of age-matched and sex-matched controls (group II). The diagnosis was based on Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed. criteria and verified by application of Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. A blood sample was taken from all participants for assessment of the levels of serum vitamin D. Results Patients with major depressive disorder have significantly lower serum vitamin-D levels than controls (mean±SD was 17.2±12.3 for patients and 33.4±24.2 for controls, P=0.001). About 58.33% of patients had deficient vitamin D, while 45% of controls had deficient vitamin D (P=0.022). There is a statistically significant negative correlation between the severity of depression and serum vitamin D. Conclusions Serum vitamin D was significantly lower in major depression patients than controls. In addition, it is evident to have a direct correlation with severity of symptom depression.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Assessment of risk factors in children suffering from obsessive–compulsive disorder p. 140
Shaimaa Saied, Ashraf El-Tantawy, Wafaa Haggag, Khaled Abd Elmoez, Haydy Hassan
Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating illness. The exploration of risk factors of obsessive–compulsive in childhood will offer a different perspective in order to reduce the prevalence of lifelong OCD. Aim of the study This study assessed some risk factors of OCD in a sample of children suffering from OCD, which included history of stressful and/or traumatic life events, positive family history of OCD, pattern of parenting styles, and evidence for post-streptococcal infection. Methods The study was conducted as a cross-sectional comparative study, targeting school-age children (6–12 years old) who suffered from OCD in comparison with typically developing age-matched and sex-matched normal children. Results Statistically significantly differences were detected between histories of trauma exposure, anti-streptolysin O titer, and authoritarian parenting styles among the OCD children, in comparison with those of healthy controls. Conclusion Authoritarian parenting style and trauma exposure, particularly of emotional abuse, were established as the most risk factors for developing childhood OCD.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Psychiatric symptoms associated with internet addiction among Suez Canal University students p. 149
Aya Elhusseiny, Wafaa E Haggag, Khaled Abd Elmoez, Mona Elsayed, Haydy Hassan
Objective Until now, there are debates on existence and classification of internet addiction and if it is an independent mental disorder or a symptom of other mental disorders. Therefore, in the current study, we tried to assess the association of psychiatric symptoms with internet addiction among Suez Canal University students to enhance understanding of psychiatric symptoms as risk factors for internet addiction. Thus, preventive and treatment measures could be taken. Patients and methods One-hundred students were assessed in a cross-sectional case–control study using clinical interview and internet-addiction test for internet addiction and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Scale for psychiatric symptoms. Results Our results revealed that depression, social phobia, obsessions, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), bulimia nervosa, and psychosis are significantly associated with internet addiction. However, logistic-regression analysis revealed that depression, social phobia, obsessions, and OCD are the only predictors of internet addiction with the presence of obsessions as the most powerful predictor. Conclusion Students who have obsessions, OCD, social phobia, and depression could be more vulnerable to internet addiction. Thus, treatment and preventive approaches targeting those symptoms or disorders are important for clinicians to know because they could be helpful in reduction of the big problem of internet addiction.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Psychological effects of coronavirus diease 2019 among a Malaysian population at Quarters for Educational Institutions Section 18, Shah Alam, Selangor p. 155
Sohayla M Attalla, Fatin S.M Faizal, Mohd Faizal M.A., Kavitha A Kumar, Sakina Ruhi, Hazian Hamzah
Background The Malaysian government decided to implement a nationwide movement control order (MCO) to break the chains of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Implementation of MCO caused a large section of the population to be isolated, which led to significant economic, social, and political disruption. The epidemic also triggered individuals to experience stress symptoms as well as panic disorders, anxiety, and depression. Therefore, this research aimed to study the psychological effects of COVID-19 among a Malaysian population at Shah Alam, Selangor. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the psychological effect, anxiety, depression, and stress status during the peak of the COVID-19 outbreak. Primary data were collected using an online questionnaire containing sociodemographics, psychological effects, and mental health status during MCO. The psychological effect was assessed using the Event Scale-Revised (IES-r), and mental health status was assessed by the depression, anxiety, and stress scale. Results The results showed that the population rated themselves as having severe psychological distress during COVID-19 (95.2%) through the IES-r questionnaire. Meanwhile, mental health statuses such as depression, anxiety, and stress were rated as normal (89, 82.2, and 94.6%, respectively) through the depression, anxiety, and stress scale 21. The regression analysis showed a significant relationship between sociodemographic data and depression and anxiety. The marital status and parental status showed a significant relationship with depression, whereas age, educational attainment, and marital and parental status showed a significant relation with anxiety. Conclusion Most of the population at Quarters of Educational Institutions experienced severe psychological distress during the COVID-19 outbreak according to IES-r, whereas the mental status was mostly unaffected.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Evaluation of quantitative electroencephalogram changes in the assessment of anxiety disorders among children and adolescents p. 161
Hussein H Abdeldayem, Mervat W Abu-Nazel, Kariman K Sobhy, Shimaa A.M Anwar
Background Anxiety disorders are considered a major health problem affecting children and adolescents with high incidence and prevalence in different societies. Aim The present study aimed at detecting the quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) changes in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders compared with healthy children. It also aimed to estimate sensitivity and specificity of QEEG in the identification of children with anxiety disorders. Patients and methods This is a case–control study, which was conducted on 20 children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and 20 healthy children and adolescents. Children were initially screened with the Arabic version of Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders and then furtherly subjected to interviewing children and caregivers and finally psychological testing using questionnaires for both the child and parents to verify diagnosis of anxiety disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. QEEG recording: QEEG recording was performed to cases and controls under comfortable light and calm room without artifacts to assess spectrum power. Results Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, theta wave spectrum power can significantly detect anxiety disorders in children and adolescents at cutoff less than or equal to 65.4 with a sensitivity and specificity of 80 and 65%, respectively. High-frequency beta wave spectrum power can significantly detect children and adolescents with anxiety disorders at a cutoff more than 23.7 with a sensitivity and specificity of 65 and 90%, respectively. Conclusion Children and adolescents with anxiety disorders have QEEG changes that coincide with their symptomatology proving that QEEG is a useful method in the assessment and diagnosis of anxiety disorders.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Comparison of cognitive functions and other clinical correlates in patients with schizophrenia with and without comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder p. 169
Noha S Abu-Alia, Wesam A.S Ghareeb, Hossam El-Din F Al-Sawy, El-Sayed A El-Hamid Gad
Context Schizophrenia is a serious and chronic mental disorder that includes a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional symptoms, and it can be difficult to diagnose. Aims To compare cognitive functions and psychotic parameters, the association of depressive symptoms, and the overall level of performance among individuals with schizophrenia only and individuals who had schizophrenia with comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Settings and design The study was conducted at the Neuropsychiatry Department and the Center of Psychiatry, Neurology, and Neurosurgery of Tanta University. Patients and methods This study was carried out on 60 patients aged from 18 to 40 years who were able to read and write. Patients were subdivided into two equal groups: group 1 met the diagnosis of schizophrenia with OCD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria and group 2 fulfilled the diagnosis of schizophrenia according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. All cases were subjected to psychiatric interview, psychiatric symptom rating, neuropsychological assessment, and global assessment of functioning. Statistical analysis SPSS v25 was used to perform the statistical analysis. Results Patients who had schizophrenia with OCD showed a considerably greater score on Hamilton depression rating scale than patients with schizophrenia only (P=0.002). Patients with schizophrenia only showed more negative symptoms than those who had schizophrenia with OCD (P=0.001). Conclusions Schizo-obsessive patients have better performance in all cognitive tests, showing higher levels of concentration and visuospatial functioning and better visual search speed, scanning, speed of processing, and abstract thinking. Moreover, they had higher levels of overall social and occupational functioning. Important clinical consequence of our work is that schizo-obsessive cases do not inevitably have a more severe disease with a potentially worse prognosis.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

The efficacy of short-term individual interpersonal psychotherapy in augmentation with pharmacotherapy in major depressive disorder p. 178
Ahmed Dobie, Salwa Tobar, Mohamed El-Hadidy, Ahmed Eissa
Background The high prevalence rates and persistently increasing burden of depression indicate that there are still many unmet needs in the management of depression. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is one of the main evidence-based psychotherapeutic interventions for depression. Aim To evaluate the efficacy of short-term individual IPT in combination with pharmacotherapy, compared with pharmacotherapy alone, in the treatment of depression and assess its role in improving social functioning. Setting and design This study was conducted in Mansoura University hospitals and was an interventional randomized controlled trial. Patients and methods A total of 40 patients were recruited and randomized into either the interventional group or the control group. The interventional group received IPT in combination with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. IPT was in the form of once weekly session for 12 weeks. Patients in the control group received treatment with an selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with appointments once every 2 weeks. Patients from both groups were assessed by the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report at the beginning and after 12 weeks. Statistical analysis IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results There were highly statistically significant improvements in depressive symptoms and in social functioning between the baseline assessments and after 12 weeks on the used scales in both groups. There was a trend for better improvement in the interventional group (IPT+pharmacotherapy) in depressive symptoms and in overall and specific domains of social functioning when compared with the control group. The interventional group showed statistically significant better improvements in social functioning when compared with the control group. Conclusions Combined IPT and pharmacotherapy shows clear benefits over pharmacotherapy alone, in both alleviating depressive symptoms and improvement of social functioning.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Erratum: The effect of age on the degree of improvement of pragmatics in delayed language developed children p. 189

[HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Subscribe this journal
Submit articles
Most popular articles
Joiu us as a reviewer
Email alerts
Recommend this journal