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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2015| September-December  | Volume 36 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 30, 2015

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Evaluation of psychiatric morbidity and quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris
Athar A Saker, Khaled A El-Moez, Roshdy W Mohammad, Nader A Ismail
September-December 2015, 36(3):144-149
Background The influence of acne on body image is believed to be the main factor associated with psychological morbidity. As the face is almost always the site of involvement of acne, its presence can alter one's perception of body image. Psychiatric disorders can develop secondary to acne vulgaris. Aim of the work This work was carried out to evaluate the psychological morbidity and effects of acne vulgaris on quality of life. Patients and methods A total of 140 patients with acne vulgaris were assessed for severity of acne using the acne severity scale and for depressive and anxiety disorder using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. Quality of life was assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Results There were a statistically significant relation between acne severity and severity of depression and anxiety on assessment scales. The relation between acne severity and DLQI was statistically significant. In most patients with mild acne severity, a minor effect on DLQI was present, whereas in most patients with severe acne, severe effects were present. Conclusion Treatment needs to address both the primary skin condition and the psychiatric manifestations.
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Electroencephalographic pattern among autistic children and their relatives
Nehal Elkholy, Ayman Ezedin, Mohammed Hamdy, Heba Abou El Wafa
September-December 2015, 36(3):150-157
Introduction Autism and related autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are lifelong, often severely impairing neurodevelopmental syndromes involving deficits in social relatedness, language, and behavior. There is good evidence that electroencephalographic (EEG) changes are common in children with autism and these EEG changes are considered to be signs of cerebral dysfunction. Aim of the work The aim of this study was to study specific EEG patterns in autism and to correlate severity of autism to EEG patterns. Participants and methods The study was conducted on 30 children who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for autism aged 3 years and above, and 30 siblings of them not fulfilling criteria of any pervasive developmental disorder. Participants of this study were recruited from the private centers of developmentally handicapped children, and the neuropsychiatry outpatient clinic of Alexandria University Hospital. All studied children were subjected to the following: first: full history taking and physical, neurological, and psychiatric examination for clinical assessment of ASD according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Second: psychological testing using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Third: EEG for all sampled children. Results Prevalence of EEG abnormalities among autistic cases was 66.7%, whereas in the sibling group was 20%, which was significantly different from cases group. Generalized symmetrical spike wave complexes and focal centrotemporal spikes were the most prevalent EEG changes among autistic cases. There was a significant relationship between CARS and generalized EEG abnormalities. Conclusion Generalized symmetrical spike wave complexes and focal centrotemporal spikes were the most prevalent EEG changes among autistic cases. The lack of similarity between cases and sibling EEGs suggests that the epileptiform activity found in children with ASDs is more than just a familial pattern or a typical childhood finding. There was a significant relationship between CARS and generalized EEG abnormalities.
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Psychiatric morbidity among a sample of orphanage children in Cairo
Samah H Rabei
September-December 2015, 36(3):158-162
Background Children raised in orphanages have increased rates of psychiatric morbidity. Aims The study aimed to detect psychiatric morbidity and various sociodemographic factors associated with it among children raised in orphanages in Cairo. Participants and methods In all, 100 children were recruited from four orphanages: 25 from Nasr City orphanage for preschool girls; 25 from Heliopolis orphanage primary and preparatory boys; 25 from Maadi orphanage for preschool boys; and 25 from Hadaaek Al Kooba primary and preparatory girls. They were assessed using a General Health Questionnaire, a Child Behavior Checklist, a Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Holmes and Rahe stress scale (nonadults) between June and December 2013. Results The study found the following: (a) sexual and emotional abuse render the child prone to mental illness (General Health Questionnaire). (b) Change of teachers and orphanages render the child prone to emotional neglect and abuse, reactive attachment, oppositional defiance, and nocturnal enuresis. (c) Reactive attachment and oppositional defiance are more in male children. (d) Depression is more in teens. (e) Male teens are prone to sexual abuse. (f) Conduct and substance abuse is more in male teens. (g) Suicide, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance abuse are strongly associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion This study concluded that there is a high rate of emotional and developmental disorders among orphanage children and are strongly inter-related with sociodemographic characteristics.
  - 2,862 232
Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphisms in Saudi cases with schizophrenia
Ashraf Tantawy, Abduhamid Al-Yahia, Yasser Raya, Abdurrahman Al-Mohaimeed, Ahmad Settin
September-December 2015, 36(3):118-123
Background This work was conducted to test for the association of genetic polymorphisms of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) with the susceptibility and clinical patterns of schizophrenia among Saudi patients. Participants and methods This is a case-control study involving 79 patients fulfilling the ICD-10 criteria of schizophrenia and 82 healthy controls. Patients were interviewed by different tools, which included the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS/V4.0), the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (version 2.0) (WHO/DAS II). All patients and controls were screened for COMT G >A gene polymorphisms using the real-time PCR technique. Results Frequencies of all genetic variants of COMT G >A [V158M] did not show a significant difference on comparing cases with controls (P > 0.05). Comparing the frequencies of genetic variants in cases having positive parental consanguinity and a family history of schizophrenia or other mental illnesses with those without a history also showed nonsignificant results (P > 0.05). A stratified analysis related to severity scores and associated clinical illnesses also showed a nonsignificant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion Polymorphism related to COMT G >A was not associated with the susceptibility and the severity of schizophrenia among Saudi cases.
  - 2,661 3,981
Depression among school aged epileptic children and their siblings
Marwa Abd El-Maksoud, Hamdy Bedair, Hanan Azouz, Heba Abou El-Wafa
September-December 2015, 36(3):124-131
Introduction Researches on children and adolescents with epilepsy have revealed a high incidence of psychological and behavioral difficulties. For a longtime, patients and physicians tended to focus solely on the control of epileptic seizures, while disregarding the presence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms and disorders. Recognition of their negative impact in the life of patients with epilepsy in recent years has highlighted the need for the early identification of psychiatric symptoms. Aim of the work The work aimed to study the prevalence of depression in school aged epileptic children and their siblings and to study the possible risk factors of depressive disorders in those children with epilepsy and their siblings. Patients and methods The study included 150 school children divided into three groups: epileptic children, their siblings, and a healthy control group. They have been all subjected to history taking, neurological examination, psychiatric interview, electroencephalography, and psychometric assessment using Children's Depression Inventory, Arabic form. Results We found a significant relationship between the prevalence of depression and focal seizures (P < 0.001) especially frontal and temporal lobe epilepsy; however, we did not find a statistically significant relationship between depression and other seizures related risk factors. There was a significantly (P = 0.002) poor school performance among epileptic children (42%) compared with their siblings (16%) and the control children (12%), and also there was a significant relationship between poor school performance in epileptic children and high prevalence of depression (P = 0.025) among these children. Conclusion There is no great impact of epilepsy on the social or psychological life of the siblings especially among young children. Despite the high prevalence of depression among young epileptic children, it was not statistically significant compared with the control children. Moreover, there is a significant relationship between focal seizures and depression especially temporal and frontal lobe epilepsy. Depression as a comorbidity in epileptic children further compromises their school performance.
  - 2,783 1,537
A comparative study of child abuse in children with disruptive behavior disorders of different socioeconomic classes
Soha Ibrahim, Heba Abou El Wafa
September-December 2015, 36(3):132-138
Introduction Disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) may be described along a continuum as the emergence of oppositional defiant disorder, and may be a precursor to conduct disorder. Several psychosocial factors have been mentioned regarding children with DBD; one of them is child abuse (CA). However, minimal research has considered the nature of this factor as a cause or a consequence, and its compound effect on other factors such as the socioeconomic class (SEC). Aim of the work This work aimed to compare the effect of CA on the disciplinary style for children with DBD among different SEC and its relation to DBD severity. Participants and methods The study included 80 children, divided into two groups, recruited from government and private clinical settings, who were subjected to a child psychiatric interview, neurological and physical examinations, psychometric assessment using the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-oriented scales, CBCL DSM-oriented scales and SEC assessment. Results CA in the form of emotional abuse, physical abuse and/or neglect were found in both the studied groups among children with DBD, and varied statistically between the two groups for physical abuse and neglect. Physical abuse and neglect were related significantly to DBD diagnosis, CBCL mean scores and SEC. Finally, the presence of more than one type of CA in addition to the SEC was significantly related to CBCL mean scores, suggesting a compound effect of both child maltreatment and SEC on the severity of DBD in the studied children. Conclusion Children with DBD represented a population at risk for CA. CA was related significantly to lower SEC, symptoms' severity and the type of DBD. A compound effect was found as children with more than one type of CA and compromised SEC were predicted to have more severe symptoms of DBD compared with children with either CA or compromised SEC alone.
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Psychiatric morbidity and quality of life in cardiac patients
Mostafa A Bastawy, Samah H Rabei
September-December 2015, 36(3):139-143
Background Cardiac patients have increased rates of psychiatric morbidity and unsatisfactory quality of life (QoL). Aim of the study The study aims to detect psychiatric morbidity and QoL in cardiac patients. Study design This is an observational, analytical, cross-sectional field study. Patients and methods Thirty patients were recruited from the cardiac clinics, wards, and critical care units of three hospitals (10 from Ain Shams University Hospital, 10 from Kasr Al Ainy University Hospital, and 10 from Misr University Hospital). Patients were assessed using the ICD-10 criteria, the Egyptian version of the Suicide Probability Scale, and the Arabic version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire. Results Cardiac patients have increased rates of psychiatric morbidity and unsatisfactory QoL and increased suicidal probability. Positive associations were found between the following: (a) job, residence, type of cardiac disease, hospital accommodation, and QoL; (b) presence of comorbidity and ICD-10 diagnoses; and (c) marital state, type of cardiac disease, presence of comorbidity, and increased suicidal probability.
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